CREW TRAINING SYLLABUS
CABIN CREW TRAINING
Each student for cabin crew, receives training on:
1. Duties & Responsibilities (Theory)
- The importance of cabin crew performing their duties in accordance with the Training Manual/Operation Manual;
- Continuing competence and fitness to operate as a cabin crew member with special regard to flight and duty time limitations and rest requirements;
- An awareness of the aviation regulations relating to cabin crew and the role of the Authority;
- General knowledge of relevant aviation terminology, theory of flight, Phases of flight, Sterile flight deck, passenger distribution, meteorology and areas of operation;
- Pre-flight briefing of the cabin crew and the provision of necessary safety information with regard to their specific duties;
- The importance of ensuring that relevant documents and manuals are kept up-to date with amendments provided by the operator;
- The importance of identifying when cabin crew members have the authority and responsibility to initiate an evacuation and other emergency procedures; and
- The importance of safety duties and responsibilities and the need to respond promptly and effectively to emergency situations covering silent review to be done by Cabin Crew during take-off and landing.
2. Communication (Theory)
Importance of effective communication between cabin crew and flight crew including technique, common language and terminology.
3. Passenger Handling (Theory)
Training for passenger handling will include the following:
- Advice on the recognition and management of passengers who are, or become, intoxicated with alcohol or are under the influence of drugs or are aggressive;
- Methods used to motivate passengers and the crowd control necessary to expedite an aircraft evacuation;
- Regulations covering the safe stowage of cabin baggage (including cabin service items) and the risk of it becoming a hazard to occupants of the cabin or otherwise obstructing or damaging safety equipment or aircraft exits;
- The importance of correct seat allocation with reference to aircraft mass and balance. Particular emphasis shall also be given on the seating of disabled passengers, and the necessity of seating able-bodied passengers adjacent to unsupervised exits;
- Duties to be undertaken in the event of encountering turbulence including securing the cabin;
- Conditions and Precautions to be taken when live animals are carried in the cabin, Aircraft Rule 24C and Carriage of Blind passengers travelling with see-eye dog.
4. Aircraft Visit (Practical)
Aircraft visit to provide an overview of the aircraft’s exterior, interior and systems including the following:
- Interphone and public address systems;
- Evacuation alarm systems;
- Emergency lighting;
- Smoke detection systems;
- Safety/emergency equipment;
- Flight deck including demonstration of Procedure for handling incapacitated crew;
- Cabin crew stations;
- Toilet compartments;
- Galleys, galley security and water shut-off;
- Cargo areas if accessible from the passenger compartment during flight;
- Circuit breaker panels located in the passenger compartment;
- Crew rest areas;
- Exit location, operation and its environment;
CABIN CREW INCHARGE / ADVANCE CABIN CREW TRAINING
Minimum duration of the training shall be 06 programmed days/36 hours. Training for Cabin Crew Incharge should include following in addition to tasks mentioned above for Cabin Crew Training:
Medical aspects and First Aid
An operator shall ensure that medical and first aid training includes the following subjects:
- Physiology of flight including oxygen requirements and hypoxia;
- Medical emergencies in aviation including:
- Heart attacks;
- Stress reactions and allergic reactions;
- Air sickness;
- Gastro-intestinal disturbances; and
- Emergency childbirth;
- Practical cardio - pulmonary resuscitation by each cabin crew member having regard to the aircraft environment and using a specifically designed dummy;
- Basic first aid and survival training including care of:
- The unconscious;
- Wounds; and
- Fractures and soft tissue injuries;
- Travel health and hygiene including:
- The risk of contact with infectious diseases especially when operating into tropical and sub-tropical areas. Reporting of infectious diseases protection from infection and avoidance of water-borne and food-borne illness. Training shall include the means to reduce such risks;
- Hygiene on board;
- Death on board;
- Handling of clinical waste; and
- Alertness management, physiological effects of fatigue, sleep physiology, circadian rhythm and time zone changes;
- The use of appropriate aircraft equipment including first aid kits, emergency medical kits, first aid oxygen and emergency medical equipment.
AVSEC Training including the provisions of ICAO/BCAS.
Dangerous Goods Training
As prescribed in Section 11 Series C Part I.
Fire and Smoke Procedural Training
An operator shall ensure that fire and smoke training includes:
- Emphasis on the responsibility of cabin crew to deal promptly with emergencies involving fire and smoke and, in particular, emphasis on the importance of identifying the actual source of the fire;
- The importance of informing the flight crew immediately, as well as the specific actions necessary for co-ordination and assistance, when fire or smoke is discovered;
- The necessity for frequent checking of potential fire-risk areas including toilets, and the associated smoke detectors; and
- The classification of fires and the appropriate type of extinguishing agents and procedures for particular fire situations, the techniques of application of extinguishing agents, the consequences of misapplication, and of use in a confined space.
Water Survival Training
An operator shall ensure that water survival training includes the actual donning and use of personal flotation equipment in water by each cabin crew member. Before first operating on an aircraft fitted with life-rafts or other similar equipment, training must be given on the use of this equipment, as well as actual practice in water.
An operator shall ensure that survival training is appropriate to the areas of operation, (e.g. polar, desert, jungle or sea).
- Operating as a crew;
- Allocation of cabin crew stations and responsibilities; and
- Consideration of the particular flight including:
Categories of passengers, including the disabled, infants and stretcher cases;
Co-operation within the crew:
- Discipline, responsibilities and chain of command;
- Importance of co-ordination and communication; and
- Pilot incapacitation;
Review of operators’ requirements and legal requirements:
- Passengers safety briefing, safety cards;
- Securing of galleys;
- Stowage of cabin baggage;
- Electronic equipment;
- Procedures when fuelling with passengers on board;
- Death on board;
- Inoperative system procedures ; and
Miscellaneous Practical Training
- Human Factors and Crew Resource Management:
- Accident and incident reporting; and
- Flight and duty time limitations and rest requirements.
- The training to include:
- Situation management training.
- Passenger as a resource to assist in an emergency situation.
- Disruptive Passenger management.
SYLLABUS FOR CABIN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TRAINING
Human factors in aviation, General instructions on CRM principles and objectives. Human performance and limitations
From the perspective of the individual cabin crew member
Personality awareness, human error and reliability, attitudes and behaviors, self assessment. Stress & stress management. Fatigue and vigilance Assertiveness. Situation awareness, information acquisition and processing.
From the perspective of the whole aircraft crew
Error prevention & detection. Shared situation awareness, information acquisition & processing. Workload management. Effective communication and coordination between all crew members including the flight crew as well as inexperienced cabin crew members, cultural differences. Leadership, cooperation, synergy, decision-making, delegation. Individual and team responsibilities, decision making, and actions Identification & management of the passenger human factors : crowd control, passenger stress, conflict management, medical factors In-depth. Specifics related to aircraft types (narrow /wide bodies, single /multi deck), flight crew and cabin crew composition and number of passengers.
From the perspective of the operator and the organization
Company safety culture, SOPs, organizational factors, factors linked to the type of operations. Effective communication and coordination with other operational Personnel, ground services and any other agency. Participation in cabin safety incident and accident reporting. Case based studies
CRM Training for Cabin Crew Incharge
CRM training for Cabin Crew Incharge should be the application of knowledge gained in previous CRM training (if any) and operational experience relevant to the specific duties and responsibilities of a cabin crew incharge. The cabin crew incharge should demonstrate ability to manage the operation and take appropriate leadership/management decisions.
DETAILED PRACTICAL TRAINING SYLLABUS
Below mentioned are the minimum criteria for equipment and performance of the practical training and are intended to provide the trainee with the skills necessary to perform their responsibilities and duties.
Public Address System and Interphone System Drills
- Relaying information to fellow crew members and to passengers is an important safety component of the crew member’s duties.
- The PA system and interphone system are tools for relaying safety information thus using the systems correctly and effectively increases the probability of the message being received and understood.
At least one public address system and one interphone system of a type installed in the air operator’s aircraft shall be used for the drills.
Each trainee shall demonstrate communications techniques on a public address system and an interphone system and perform the following:
- Remove the PA microphone/handset from its stowage;
- Activate the PA system and (if applicable) verify that it is activated;
- Deliver at least one published safety or emergency announcement;
- De-activate/reset the system after use;
- Re-stow the handset/microphone after use;
- Remove the interphone handset from its stowage;
- Activate, select station;
- Communicate with receiving station;
- De-activate/reset the system after use; and
- Re-stow the handset/microphone after use.
Passenger Briefing Drills
- Equipment Criteria
- Demonstration equipment should be typical to all of the equipment used on the aircraft in the operator’s fleet.
Each trainee shall perform each of the following:
- Pre-flight safety briefing to a special attention passenger (e.g. blind, person with a disability, unaccompanied minor);
- Individual briefing to an ABP (e.g. exit operation, crowd control, assisting a special attention passenger, assistance on the ground, raft removal and launching); and
- Perform a full passenger pre-flight safety demonstration (e.g. signs, seat belts, exits, oxygen, life jacket, floor level lighting, safety features card, etc.).
Aircraft Exit Operation Drills
Each drill shall be performed using the appropriate aircraft or approved training device. Individual aircraft exits may be substituted by the approved equivalent as authorized in the training program.
Normal Door Operation Performance Criteria
Each trainee shall operate each floor level exit type, for each aircraft type, in the normal mode and perform the following:
- Identify the signal and the conditions under which that exit may be opened/closed;
- Assess the exterior and interior conditions for obstacles or hazards to persons or the exit during opening/closing (e.g. loading bridge, stairs, barrier straps/cords, equipment);
- Identify the signal for arming and disarming the exit;
- Perform the arming and disarming sequence for the exit;
- Verify the exit mode as armed and disarmed by completing appropriate checks (e.g. visual checks, physical checks, cross-checks, response to interphone call);
- Open and close the exit (in the normal [disarmed] mode);
- Engage and release exit locking mechanisms and verify functioning of locking mechanisms (e.g. gust lock);
- Install and remove the barrier strap for that exit; and
- Perform the opening/closing follow-up checks for that exit (e.g. alignment for markings, closed/locked indicators, etc.).
Emergency Door Operation Performance Criteria
Each trainee shall operate each floor level exit type, for each aircraft type, in the emergency mode and perform the following:
- Recognize the signal for or the conditions under which the exit is to be
- opened in the emergency mode;
- Verify the exit is in the correct mode;
- Assess conditions outside the exit to determine exit usability (e.g. clear of obstruction, fire, and aircraft attitude);
- Position escape device (if applicable);
- Open the exit in the armed mode and secure the exit in the fully open position;
- Pull the manual inflation handle(s) and verify deployment, inflation (e.g. ramp, slide);
- Assume and maintain appropriate protective body and hand positions; and
- Access release handle(s) (e.g. slide disconnect).
Cabin Window Exit Performance Criteria
Each trainee shall operate each cabin window or hatch exit type, for each aircraft type and perform the following:
- Recognize the signal for or the conditions under which the exit is to be opened;
- Assess conditions outside the exit to determine exit usability (e.g. clear of obstruction, fire, and aircraft attitude);
- Open and correctly stow the exit (if applicable);
- Verbally describe correct exit placement following removal, if the training procedures differ from the operational procedures, pull the manual inflation handle(s) and verify deployment, inflation (e.g. ramp, slide);
- Pull the manual inflation handle(s) and verify deployment, inflation (e.g. ramp, slide);
- Assume and maintain appropriate protective body and hand positions;
- Access escape tapes or escape ropes; and
- Access release handle(s) (e.g. slide disconnect, tail cone jettison, etc.).
- Evacuations are emergency situations which crew members must effectively manage using their knowledge of procedures and the resources available to them. Skills are developed through practice.
- It is recognized that for aircraft with more than one crew member, an evacuation will likely involve multiple exits and crew members. Therefore, where a drill is performed on an aircraft with more than one crew member, the drill scenario shall involve crew members depending upon the minimum crew requirement and as specified by the operator.
- Each trainee shall assume an actual crew position and shall perform the designated evacuation responsibilities for that position. Where a double cabin crew seat is available and would normally be occupied by two crew members the drill shall be conducted to reflect this reality.
- A trainee who is to qualify on aircraft operating with more than one crew member shall perform at least one drill with additional trainees when conducting aircraft type training.
- Demonstration should be completed by an instructor or by video demonstration prior to trainee conduct of evacuation drills. This will allow the trainees to see theory put to practice.
An evacuation drill is training and evaluation scenario, which must portray an operational flight and include abnormal and emergency occurrences and interactions amongst cabin crew members, flight crew members and passengers.
A drill scenario must not incorporate excessive variables that would overload a trainee, but not be limited so that there is reduced value to the exercise. The variables should differ in sequence from one drill to the next and can include but are not limited to the following:
- Unserviceable exits;
- Inflation devices that fail or only partially inflate;
- Aircraft attitude which necessitates a decision to use the exit or redirect passengers;
- Poor visibility (e.g. darkness, smoke);
- Incapacitated crew members;
- Exits which become unusable during the evacuation;
- Passengers with a special need (e.g. elderly, person with a disability, etc.);
- Passengers in panic (e.g. positive, negative, false leadership);
- Failure of aircraft emergency systems (e.g. lighting, evacuation signal, communication, etc.);
- Decompression; and
- Exits which require the use of non-standard “commands” (e.g. ramp with slide, etc.).
Unprepared Land & Inadvertent Water Contact Evacuation Drill Performance Criteria
Each trainee shall perform at least one land and one inadvertent water contact evacuation drill that incorporates the procedures pertinent to a specific exit and perform the following:
- Secure themselves in a cabin crew seat;
- Recognize that an emergency situation is developing and react appropriately to the drill scenario;
- Apply all applicable commands;
- Recognize when and how to initiate the evacuation (e.g. commands, evacuation horn, etc.);
- Activate emergency lights, evacuation horn;
- Assess conditions inside and outside the exit to determine exit usability throughout the evacuation;
- Locate and don life jacket and command passengers as appropriate;
- Prepare and open exit;
- Secure exit in fully open position or ensure correct stowage;
- Pull inflation handle(s) and ensure deployment, inflation of ramp, slide;
- Access escape tapes or escape ropes;
- Access release handle(s) (e.g. slide disconnect, etc.);
- Assume appropriate protective position;
- Initiate passenger evacuation;
- Final cabin, lavatory and flight deck checks and remove required emergency equipment;
- Exit aircraft/trainer correctly; and
- Demonstrate post evacuation procedures.
Crew Prepared Land & Ditching Evacuation Drill Performance Criteria
Each trainee shall participate as a crew member in at least one prepared Land evacuation drill and at least one Ditching drill and perform the following:
- Recognize the in-flight emergency signal from the flight deck and react according to procedures;
- Prepare passengers, cabin and self according to procedures and scenario;
- Select and brief able-bodied passengers to assist as required (e.g. opening un-assisted exits, removal, launching rafts, crowd control, buddy-up with special needs passengers, assisting outside aircraft and directing people away from the aircraft or onto rafts);
- Recognize the emergency brace and evacuation signals and react accordingly;
- Prepare and operate exits;
- Evacuate passengers;
- Final cabin, lavatory and flight deck checks, remove required emergency equipment, and evacuate aircraft/trainer; and Demonstrate post evacuation procedures.
The raft drill shall be conducted using life saving equipment that is identical to that installed in the aircraft with respect to weight, dimensions, appearance, features and operation. Rafts may be substituted where they are much the same with respect to weight, dimensions, appearance, features and operations and differences training have been provided.
Each trainee shall perform the following:
- Access the raft compartment, experience the difficulty associated with moving the weight of a packaged raft within a space representative of the aircraft aisle;
- Examine all features of a fully inflated raft;
- Board raft(s), assist persons into raft;
- Access the inflation lanyard (dinghy);
- Access the raft release mechanism while verbally describing the procedure to release the life raft from the aircraft; and Examine the life raft survival kit and review the operation of all components.
Each trainee shall participate in the following:
- Launching, inflating and disconnecting raft(s) either actual or by video;
- Righting overturned rafts (if applicable), either actual or by video;
- Effective raft management (e.g. distribution of passengers, deploying sea anchor, etc);
- Erecting the raft canopy;
- Raft maintenance (e.g. leak stoppers/clamps, topping up buoyancy chambers, etc.);
- Distribution of duties to passengers; and
- Discuss the hazards associated with moving a packaged life raft through the cabin to an exit (e.g. inadvertent inflation, passenger movement and panic).
Life Jacket Drill
Equipment Criteria Life Jackets used for this drill shall be identical to each model carried on the air operator’s fleet.
- Each crew member shall perform the following:
- Observe removal of life jacket from the stowage;
- Don lifejacket;
- Locate and review operation of inflation toggles;
- Practice deflation technique;
- Locate and review light activation; and
- Locate whistle.
- Observe the fitting of a life jacket for a child.
- Review any design and/or operational differences for all other models of life jackets carried in the air operator’s fleet.
Aircraft Slide Drill
The evacuation slide shall be of a type installed in the aircraft.
Each trainee shall perform an aircraft inflatable slide drill according to the following:
- Locate and touch the manual inflation handle and the disconnect handle from a position at the door sill area; and
- Slide down an inflatable slide from one of the categories for a particular aircraft, and for each other inflatable category view an approved video which depicts: the slide, slide/raft, ramp/slide activation and inflation both internally and externally; the video sequence shall also include: inflation sound, disconnect, and “alternate use” (apron) procedures.
Live Fire Fighting Drill
Each trainee shall demonstrate the effectiveness of a fire extinguisher correctly applied to an actual fire while wearing a Protective Breathing Equipment.
Fire Fighting – Cabin – Performance Criteria
Each trainee shall demonstrate the ability to carry out fire fighting procedures in a cabin environment as a primary fire fighter and perform the following:
- Recognize that there is a potential fire situation (e.g. smoke detector signal or unusual fumes, odours);
- Locate the source of fire;
- Apply communication/co-ordination procedures;
- Select and remove the nearest appropriate fire extinguisher and (if applicable) other fire fighting equipment;
- Inform, assist and control passengers;
- Operate the extinguisher; and
- Monitor for re-ignition, and apply post-fire follow-up procedures.
Oxygen Equipment Drill
- Drill shall be performed as per Para A-7.9.2 with equipment identical to that installed in the aircraft with respect to dimensions, appearance, features, controls, charge duration, operation and brackets used for restraint.
- Where types differ, the drill shall be repeated with the appropriate equipment.
Portable Oxygen Bottle Performance Criteria
Each trainee shall use each portable oxygen bottle type according to the air operator’s procedures and perform the following:
- Remove bottle from the bracket, stowage;
- Retrieve oxygen mask and hose;
- Attach it to the high and low outlets;
- Use the carrying strap;
- Prepare the “passenger” for receiving oxygen;
- Demonstrate :- Turning on the oxygen, positioning and securing the mask to the passenger's face;
- Secure the oxygen bottle and position it to monitor the supply; and
- Recognize when oxygen is no longer required and apply procedures for shutting off the supply and re-stowing the oxygen mask and bottle.
Pilot Incapacitation Drill
For each aircraft where the operation of the pilot seats is significantly different, each crew member shall:
- Pull the pilot away from the flight controls and correctly fastens and locks the restraint system;
- Position the pilot seat using the controls (e.g., horizontal, vertical, recline); and
- Apply crew coordination and crew communication procedures to assist the remaining flight deck crew.